Talking about the quality and safety of agricultural products, let us first understand the definition of agricultural products and quality and safety. At present, there are different definitions of agricultural products. According to the prevailing international and domestic consensus, agricultural products refer to plants, animals, microbiological products and their directly processed products, including both edible and non-edible aspects. Most of the agricultural products people often talk about are edible agricultural products. In terms of quality and safety, there are three arguments: First, the combination of quality and safety. Quality refers to the appearance and intrinsic quality of agricultural products such as nutrients, color, aroma and taste, and processing performance; safety refers to the hazards of agricultural products, such as pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, heavy metal pollution, etc. to humans, animals and plants, and the environment. Hazards and potential hazards. The second is quality and safety as a phrase, which is a combination of agricultural product safety, quality, and nutritional factors. The third is the narrow concept, which refers to the safety in quality.
Considering the way and factors of pollution, the safety of agricultural products can be broadly divided into four types: physical pollution, chemical pollution, biological pollution and background pollution.
Physical pollution refers to the harm caused by physical factors to the quality and safety of agricultural products. It is due to the non-standard operation in the harvesting or processing of agricultural products that accidentally mixed toxic and harmful impurities in agricultural products, resulting in contamination of agricultural products, such as the inclusion of genetically modified products in conventional products. This contamination can be prevented by standard operations.
Chemical pollution refers to the harm to the quality and safety of agricultural products caused by the unreasonable use of chemical synthetic substances during production and processing. If banned pesticides are used, excessive and excessive use of pesticides, veterinary drugs, fishery drugs, additives and other toxic and hazardous substances caused by residual pollution. The pollution can be controlled through standardized production.
Bio-pollution refers to the damage caused by various biological factors in the nature to the quality and safety of agricultural products, such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and toxins. This year, bird flu in Asia is caused by viruses. Biological hazards have large uncertainties and are difficult to control. Some of them can be controlled through prevention, while most of them require comprehensive measures.
The underlying pollution refers to the harm caused by the pollutants in the production environment of agricultural products to the quality and safety of agricultural products. It mainly includes the pollution of water, soil and gas in the production environment, such as irrigation water, soil, and excessive heavy metals in the atmosphere. The treatment of the bottom pollution is the most difficult and needs to be resolved by purifying the habitat of the origin or adjusting the breeds.
For the above four major pollution types, different countries, different stages of development and consumption levels, there are different focuses and hot spots. At present, the focus of China's agricultural product quality and safety work is to solve chemical pollution and corresponding safety hazards. The â€œAction-free Food Action Planâ€ implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture is to start with key hazard factors such as pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, and banned drugs. It mainly addresses the safety of agricultural products and allows consumers to feel comfortable eating agricultural products.