High-performance CNC machine tools and electric spindle units

Abstract: This paper briefly introduces the development of high-performance CNC machine tools at home and abroad, the role of built-in electric spindle unit in CNC machine tools, and looks forward to the development prospects of China's domestic mounted electric spindle unit.

The machine tool industry is a basic industry related to the national economy and the people's livelihood. It shoulders the heavy responsibility of providing modern helmets for all sectors of the national economy and defense industry. Driven by the continuous development of the world economy and the steady growth of the domestic economy, the domestic machine tool industry has made considerable progress and progress in recent years. As an important carrier of the mainstream products and high-tech of the machine tool industry, the development of CNC machine tools is more rapid.

I. Recent developments in international CNC machine tools

The bi-annual EMO International Machine Tool Fair was held in Milan, Italy. The exhibition exhibits flexibility and high-speed integration. It fully reflects the characteristics and level of contemporary international CNC machine tools. Its prominent focus is:

1. CNC machine tools are further developed at a high speed.

The maximum speed of the spindle of VISION vertical machining center of Germany CHIRON company is 10500, 15000, 30000, 40,000r/min; the tool change time is 0.5 second (TT) and 1.2 second (CC) respectively. The XY axial vector acceleration is 5.2g. The Z-axis acceleration is up to 3g. The maximum speed of the J4M horizontal machining center spindle of Japan MAKINO Milling Machine Company can reach 60,000r/min.

2. The two-spindle machining center was unveiled at this exhibition.

A large number of twin-spindle machining centers have emerged at the show. Such as: Italy's COMAU Group's Urane 225 twin-spindle, double-knife, ram-moving high-speed horizontal machining center; Germany's KRAUSE & MAUSER's PS500DUO, Thyssen Group's CROSS HULLER's Spechf+550 duo, HELLER's MCT250, Schwabische Werkzegmaschiner's BA W06-22 and other double-spindle ram horizontal machining center; Schwabische Werkzegmaschiner's BA W03-22 double-spindle ram mobile vertical machining center; Italy RIELLO Group's mc2 twin-spindle ram movement Horizontal machining center unit; Germany CHIRON DF12KW double spindle vertical machining center; Germany's STAMA company MC331/TWIN double spindle sleeve mobile vertical machining center; and so on.

3, multi-work, composite processing equipment to the parts once installed card to complete the development of all processing directions.

The TRAUB TNX65 multi-function CNC turning center exhibited by INDEX in Germany can complete the multi-face turning and milling work at one time. Germany's DMG's TWIN65 twin-spindle turning center can achieve six-sided machining. The GMX200Liner turning and milling center can complete the turning and milling of the bar workpiece at the same time. The M40, M40G, M120 and other spindle turning and milling centers exhibited by WFL Mill Technolog in Austria have a maximum machining diameter of 1600mm and a maximum machining length of 6500mm. Japan's NaKamura-Tome Precision Indusfry's NTX turning center can simultaneously perform multi-face milling. Japan's MAZAK's INTEGRA Xe 800v/s and 1060v/s spindle horizontal milling center are based on the spindle linkage horizontal machining center, which adds turning function to the rotary table and can complete the circular part at the same time. All the milling and milling. The MGR vertical car grinding compound processing machine exhibited by MAGERLE in Switzerland can perform a variety of processing on the inner diameter, outer diameter and end surface of the workpiece at the same time.

4, five-axis linkage flexible processing, parallel machine tools popularization, production and practical.

The five-axis linkage machining center at the exhibition is very common. Japan's MAZAK's VARIAXIS 500-5x, 730-5x five-axis linkage vertical machining center, MATSUURA Machinery's NAM72-63V five-axis linkage machining center, Beicun Machinery's My trunnion five-axis linkage vertical machining center, Mitsui Seiki The company's VL30-5X five-axis linkage machining center, Germany's HERLME company's C40UP dual-tray five-axis linkage vertical machining center, CHIRON's MILL800 five-axis linkage machining center, Italy's FIDIA K156RT five-axis linkage vertical machining center, Switzerland DIXI's DHP80-5A high-precision five-axis linkage horizontal machining center can simultaneously realize the functions of spindle rotation, swing, tilting, swinging and swinging of the table. Germany's EMAG's multi-model flexible processing unit, Japan's OKVMA's PM-600 parallel vertical machining center is more practical.

Second, the development trend of domestic CNC machine tools.

After 25 years of "Six. 5", "Seven. Five", "Eight Five", "Nine. Five" and "Ten. Five", the development level of CNC machine tools in China has made great progress. The variety and quality of CNC machine tools have improved. Some machine tool manufacturing leading factories have also developed CNC equipment with considerable levels. With the continuous growth of the national economy, the demand for core CNC machine tools for basic equipment in various industries is increasing. The requirements for machine grades are also getting higher and higher. In recent years, the annual increase rate of domestic CNC machine tools and imports has remained above 30%. According to incomplete statistics, the annual production of domestic machine tools in 2003 was 35,000 units, reaching the “10th Five-Year Plan” target two years ahead of schedule. According to the prediction of experts from China Machine Tool Industry Association, the annual output of domestic CNC machine tools will reach 45,000 units in 2004. Due to the imbalance of technological development, under the constraints of various conditions, there is still a certain distance between the whole technical level of CNC machine tools in China and the international advanced level. Some high-performance, high-speed, high-precision CNC machine tools still need to rely on overseas imports. In 2003, China imported 20,000 CNC machine tools from overseas. It is estimated that another 30,000 units will be imported in 2004. This momentum is estimated to be difficult to revolve in the near future.

Third, the role of built-in electric spindle unit in CNC machine tools.

The built-in electric spindle unit combines the motor with a high-precision spindle, making the spindle unit a promising step for high-speed, high-efficiency, high-precision machining. The built-in electric spindle unit is the core functional component of CNC machine tools. It frees the machine from the mechanical drive and simplifies the machine structure while eliminating vibration and noise generated by mechanical transmission.

International high-performance, high-speed, high-precision CNC machine tools generally use electric spindle units. In multi-joint composite machining machines, multi-axis linkage polyhedron machining machines, parallel machine tools and flexible machining units, electric spindles have the irreplaceable superiority of mechanical spindles.

Since the “Ninth Five-Year Plan”, the state has used two five-year plans to increase its efforts to support domestic development of practical electric spindle units for CNC machine tools. After six years of hard work, China has independently developed electric spindles for CNC machine tools with maximum speeds of 8000, 12000, 15000, 18000, 24000, 30000r/min and a maximum torque of 129Nm. The series of electric spindles for the first round of CNC machine tools has been initially completed. Some electric spindle products have been approved by the OEM.

Fourth, the development of electric spindle units for CNC machine tools in China

In the past, electric spindles were mainly used for high-speed internal grinding in the bearing industry. With the development of numerical control technology and frequency conversion technology, the application of electric spindles in CNC machine tools has become more and more extensive.

At present, the annual demand for various types of electric spindles in China is about 6,000. Among them, there are only about 1,000 electric spindles for CNC machine tools, and most of them (about 60%) are imported electric spindles; about 4,000 electric spindles for grinding, which account for about The total demand of the main shaft is 2/3; the rest are special-purpose electric spindles such as high-speed centrifuges and high-speed test machines.

However, the rapid development of CNC machine tools is changing the market for electric spindles based on grinding shafts. According to the “10·5” development plan of the machine tool industry, the output of CNC machine tools in China will increase from 15,000 units in 2000 to 35,000 units in 2005 (currently forecast to exceed 50,000 units), and the proportion of CNC machine tools using electric spindles will also be 6.7% increased to about 40%. It is estimated that by 2005, the number of electric spindles for CNC machine tools will surge to 20,000, accounting for about 2/3 of the total demand for electric spindles. It will become the main force in the electric spindle market instead of the market position of electric spindles.

At the same time, the demand for high-precision bearings required for CNC machine tool spindles will increase dramatically. According to the average of 4~5 sets of bearings for each CNC machine tool spindle, considering the need for some double-spindle or multi-spindle machine tools, the average spindle machine is equipped with 1.5 spindles. By 2005, the demand for high-precision spindle bearings for CNC machine tools will be The increase to 240,000 sets, plus maintenance bearings, the total demand will reach 480,000 sets.

In December 2003, the National Development and Reform Commission commissioned the China Machine Tool Industry Association to organize a symposium on the innovation and development of key functional components for CNC machine tools. At the meeting, Director Cheng Zhu of the Industrial Development and Reform Commission of the State Development and Reform Commission read out the instructions of the NDRC leaders Zhang Guobao and Wang Chunzhen on the development of CNC machine tools and their functional components. And it shows the attitude of fully supporting the innovative development of CNC machine tool components. According to the demand of domestic CNC machine tools, the Machine Tool Industry Association has proposed to strengthen the development requirements for the production units of the various functional components. The electric spindle requires that the total output of the electric spindle units for CNC machine tools reach 3,000 sets by 2005. Up to 10,000 sets. This task is very arduous. According to the development of each spindle development unit, according to the current production capacity development rate, by 2005, China can only develop up to 2,000 sets of electric spindle units. For example, the National Political Commissar will use treasury bonds to strengthen support, and by 2010 it may expand to 6,000 sets. The remaining gaps still need to be resolved through imports. Therefore, the market capacity of the electric spindle unit for CNC machine tools is huge. What is needed now is how to organize human, material and financial resources reasonably and develop many functional components.

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