Introduction to tin basic knowledge

Tin is one of the earlier discovery of ancient metal. There is no elemental state of tin in nature, and its discovery is later than copper .
Tin is a metal with a relatively low melting point, and its low melting point makes it a major component of solder.
The tin elements have three allotropes of white tin, gray tin and brittle tin. Tin can have different crystalline states in different environments. At room temperature and above room temperature, the most stable form is white tin, which is a wrought metal. When the temperature is below 13 ° C, the crystal lattice of tin will be rearranged, and the gap between the atoms will increase to form a new crystalline form, namely gray tin. Gray tin loses its metallic properties and becomes a semiconductor. The internal stress occurring at the contact between the different crystalline lattices causes the metallic tin to be broken into powder. The lower the temperature of the surrounding medium, the faster the crystal form changes. This transition is the fastest at minus 33 ° C: when the temperature drops to zero, the white tin loses its luster, turns dark gray, and finally breaks into powder. People call this phenomenon "tin plague." Incidentally, the tin plate that has not been stained with "tin plague", once contacted with the tin plate with "tin plague", will also produce gray spots and gradually "rot".
Scientists have found substances to prevent " tin plague", one of which is cockroaches . There are extra electrons in the helium atom that can be used to crystallize the tin, stabilize the state, and completely eliminate the possibility of "tin plague."
An alloy containing 52% bismuth with 32% lead and 16% tin melts in boiling water and has a melting point of only 95 °C. In sharp contrast, the melting point of tin is 232 ° C; the melting point of cerium is 271 ° C; the melting point of lead is 327 ° C. The melting point of the alloy is much lower than the melting point of each of the pure metals that make up it. Tin alloys containing gallium and indium have a lower melting point, and one of the alloys has a melting point of 10.6 °C. Low melting point alloys can be used to make electrical fuses.
Tin dichloride and tin oxide can be used as a mordant for cotton and silk, and tin dichloride can also be used as a reducing agent, a decolorizing agent, and tin plating for electroplating. In order to red color porcelain and glass, a purple dye called Cassius can be used, which is formed by adding a gold chloride solution to tin dichloride. Tin sulphate, or color gold, can be used as a gold pigment.
White tin can be made into household utensils or plated on the surface of copper and iron . Tinned iron is often referred to as "tinplate" and the tin layer on the iron surface protects the iron from corrosion. However, once the tin layer is damaged, the rate at which the iron is corroded will increase. This is because iron is more active than tin, and when they are in contact with the electrolyte solution, a primary battery is formed, and iron is gradually oxidized as a negative electrode of the primary battery, which is chemically called electrochemical corrosion.
Tin is a very toxic metal. The salt of tin is completely harmless to the human body. It does not produce harmful substances when in contact with food, and it can resist the corrosion of oxygen, water and organic acids. As a result, the performance of tin has been fully utilized. Today, about half of the world's total tin production is used to produce iron for canning. A thin layer of tinplate can store millions of people. Tons of meat, fish and fruits and vegetables. Tin deservedly won the title of “canned metal”.
The scientists conducted a large number of analyses and repeated experiments and concluded that the presence of fluorine indicates the possibility of tin ore. In prehistoric times, tin was present in a complex form of matter in which fluorine was an essential component. Later, the tin and tin compounds gradually formed a deposit, the later deposit. Fluorine is retained in the vicinity of the sediment. This discovery not only helps to determine where tin is likely to occur, but also predicts the amount of tin stored.

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